With water plentiful, scientists think it was a place where primitive life could have thrived by feeding on rocks and minerals similar to tiny organisms on Earth that hide in caves and underwater vents. P.] Around 3.5 billion years ago, Mars underwent a shift and raged with volcanic activity. [NP] The bones appear to have been cut and smashed some 3.4 million years ago, the first evidence of stone tool use by Australopithecus Afarensis, the species best known for the dubbed 'Lucy,' says researcher Zeresenay Alemseged. .'] chip away at beliefs on human ancestors ['The Kenyan site was discovered one day in July 2011 ... The brain case, the lower jaw with most of its teeth, both collar bones, many vertebrae and ribs, the fingers, both kneecaps and the delicate bone that holds open the throat, called the hyoid, are all present. The fossil is understood to be 500,000 years older than anything previously discovered south of Tanzania.NASA's older rovers Spirit and Opportunity found geologic evidence that water flowed during this time, but it was highly acidic and considered too caustic for life. P.] Scientists thought much of the planet had been awash in acidic water until Curiosity earlier this year found signs of an old streambed near its landing site with a neutral p H. [....] The oldest confirmed stone tools are less than 2.6 million years old, perhaps from only a little before the emergence of the genus Homo." [Based on: News Services article (Find rewrites history of tool use), p. [....] The fossil-hunting team happened upon the skeleton in 2000 in a region plagued by extreme heat, flash floods, malaria, wild beasts and occasional shootouts between rival ethnic groups. Researchers estimate the child may have been 3 years old. It is said to show that our ancestors had greater genetic diversity than previously believed and were spread far wider across Africa.

[....]" [Based on: Chicago Tribune article (Fossil of oldest child uncovered) by Peter Gorner, p. Although the remains are said to be those of a hominid - a human-like being who walked upright, the brain appears to have been the size of a tennis ball - only a third of the size of a modern human brain."The first discovery of an early hominid species in Africa was by Raymond Dart, who found a well preserved skull of a juvenile in South Africa in 1924.

His discovery led to an intense focus on Africa as the probable site of human origins and early development, as Charles Darwin had earlier predicted. - "[....] And indeed the earliest-known stone tools, found in Gona, Ethiopia, suggest that 2.5 million years ago meat was a central part of hominines' diet.

Thus, we are moving closer to the grand center, and will pass into Treta Yuga around the year 4099 A.

D.[1] [....]" - Woolly rhino / Tibet - "[....] The recently uncovered Tibetan woolly rhino, named Coelodonta thibetana, lived in the middle Pliocene around 3.7 million years ago, before the Ice Age, or Pleistocene, began about 2.8 million years ago. D., 05/21/15] - "A 3.3-million-year-old skeleton of a young child curled into a ball no bigger than a cantaloupe - described as 'a bright beam of light' on human evolution - was unveiled Wednesday [09/20/06 - even though it was discovered in 2000, six years ago! [NP = new paragraph] The bones may be the best fossil yet found of the primitive human ancestor Australopithecus afarensis.

13] - [First published by Times Books (as The Times Compact Atlas of World History) 1995 - updated and reprinted 2002] 2.3 Million - Homo / Ethiopia - "An upper jaw of early Homo, the genus to which modern humans belong, was recovered with primitive stone tools at Hadar, Ethiopia.

Dated to 2.33 million years, they represent the oldest firmly dated association of stone tools with a fossil human ancestor.

C.] ascribed 2,160,000 years to the period 'between creation and universal catastrophe.' " [Based on: Fingerprints Of The Gods, p.

260, by Graham Hancock]"Sri Yukteswar’s introduction to The Holy Science includes his explanation of the Yuga Cycle – revolutionary because of his premise that the earth is now in the age of Dwapara Yuga, not the Kali Yuga that most Indian pundits believe to be the current age.[4] His theory is based on the idea that the sun “takes some star for its dual and revolves round it in about 24,000 years of our earth – a celestial phenomenon which causes the backward movement of the equinoctial points around the zodiac.”[1] The common explanation for this celestial phenomenon is precession, the ‘wobbling’ rotating movement of the earth axis.

"Theoretical date marking the beginning of another Maha Yuga, or Great Age [traditionally a cycle of 4,320,000 years] and the beginning of the world's most recent Satya Yuga [Also: Krta Yuga, Krita Yuga], or Golden Age [traditionally a cycle of 1,728,000 years]." [- E.